Flicker Removal, Deflicker

Research.FlickerRemoval History

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April 18, 2010 by 134.226.86.212 -
October 01, 2007 by 134.226.85.142 -
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keywords: Flicker Removal, Deflicker, Brightness Stabilisation, Digital Movie Restoration
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keywords: Flicker Removal, Flicker Compensation, Deflicker, Brightness Stabilisation, Digital Movie Restoration
April 24, 2007 by 134.226.86.54 -
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We propose new techniques that are able to cope with strongly non-linear brightness distortions[2,3] as well as finely spatially localised fluctuations[1] of the flicker artefact. Thanks to a unique implementation based on the novel use of general purpose PC graphics hardware, the system can operate at real time on standard PC with broadcast standard definition images.

to:

We propose new techniques that are able to cope with strongly non-linear brightness distortions [2,3] as well as finely spatially localised fluctuations [1] of the flicker artefact. Thanks to a unique implementation based on the novel use of general purpose PC graphics hardware, the system can operate at real time on standard PC with broadcast standard definition images.

April 24, 2007 by 134.226.86.54 -
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The success of current techniques for dealing with this is limited by the non-linearity of severe distortion, the presence of motion and missing data (yielding outliers in the estimation process) and the lack of fast implementations in reconfigurable systems. We proposed novel algorithms for stabilizing brightness fluctuations.

We proposed as well a unique implementation based on the novel use of general purpose PC graphics hardware. The overall system presented in our latest works is able to deal with much more severe distortion than previously was the case, and in addition can operate at real time on standard PC with broadcast standard definition images.

to:

The success of current techniques for dealing with this is limited by the non-linearity of severe distortion, the presence of motion and missing data (yielding outliers in the estimation process) and the lack of fast implementations in reconfigurable systems.

We propose new techniques that are able to cope with strongly non-linear brightness distortions[2,3] as well as finely spatially localised fluctuations[1] of the flicker artefact. Thanks to a unique implementation based on the novel use of general purpose PC graphics hardware, the system can operate at real time on standard PC with broadcast standard definition images.

April 24, 2007 by 134.226.86.54 -
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(:flv-player Attach:Research.RoryOMore/rory08.deshaken.web_360x288.flv width=330 height=280 :) (:flv-player Attach:Research.RoryOMore/rory08.deflickered.web_360x288.flv width=330 height=280 :)

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(:flv-player Attach:Research.RoryOMore/rory08.deshaken.web_360x288.flv width=320 height=250 :) (:flv-player Attach:Research.RoryOMore/rory08.deflickered.web_360x288.flv width=320 height=250 :)

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(:flv-player Attach:Research.RoryOMore/rory08.deshaken.web_360x288.flv width=350 height=280 :) (:flv-player Attach:Research.RoryOMore/rory08.deflickered.web_360x288.flv width=350 height=280 :)

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(:flv-player Attach:Research.RoryOMore/rory08.deshaken.web_360x288.flv width=330 height=280 :) (:flv-player Attach:Research.RoryOMore/rory08.deflickered.web_360x288.flv width=330 height=280 :)

April 24, 2007 by 134.226.86.54 -
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(:flv-player Attach:Research.RoryOMore/rory08.deshaken.web_360x288.flv width=300 height=250 :) (:flv-player Attach:Research.RoryOMore/rory08.deflickered.web_360x288.flv width=300 height=250 :)

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(:flv-player Attach:Research.RoryOMore/rory08.deshaken.web_360x288.flv width=350 height=280 :) (:flv-player Attach:Research.RoryOMore/rory08.deflickered.web_360x288.flv width=350 height=280 :)

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(:flv-player Attach:Research.RoryOMore/toto.flv width=500 height=400 :)

Figure: Video. On the left the original shot. On the right the deflickered shot.
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(:flv-player Attach:flicker_paula.web_360x288.flv width=500 height=400 :)

Figure 2: Video. Results on a colour sequence from a 8mm movie.
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Figure 2: Video. Results on a colour sequence from a 8mm movie.
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April 24, 2007 by 134.226.86.54 -
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April 24, 2007 by 134.226.86.54 -
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(:flv-player Attach:Research.RoryOMore/rory08.deflickered.web_360x288.flv width=200 height=200 :) (:flv-player Attach:Research.RoryOMore/rory08.deflickered.web_360x288.flv width=200 height=200 :)

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(:flv-player Attach:Research.RoryOMore/rory08.deshaken.web_360x288.flv width=300 height=250 :) (:flv-player Attach:Research.RoryOMore/rory08.deflickered.web_360x288.flv width=300 height=250 :)

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(:flv-player Attach:Research.RoryOMore/rory08.deflickered.web_360x288.flv width=300 height=200 :) (:flv-player Attach:Research.RoryOMore/rory08.deflickered.web_360x288.flv width=300 height=200 :)

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(:flv-player Attach:Research.RoryOMore/rory08.deflickered.web_360x288.flv width=200 height=200 :) (:flv-player Attach:Research.RoryOMore/rory08.deflickered.web_360x288.flv width=200 height=200 :)

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Figure 3: Video. Results on a colour sequence from a 8mm movie.
April 24, 2007 by 134.226.86.54 -
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  1. Removing Flicker from old movies. F. Pitié (2002) Master's thesis, University of Nice-Sophia Antipolis.
  2. Suppression du bruit de pompage des vidéos. F. Pitié , R. Dahyot and A. C. Kokaram (2003) In Proceedings 19eme Colloque sur le Traitement du Signal. Paris, September.
  3. A New Robust Technique for Stabilizing Brightness Fluctuations. F. Pitié , R. Dahyot , F. Kelly and A. C. Kokaram (2004) In 2nd Workshop on Statistical Methods in Video Processing. Prague, may.
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  1. A New Robust Technique for Stabilizing Brightness Fluctuations. F. Pitié , R. Dahyot , F. Kelly and A. C. Kokaram (2004) In 2nd Workshop on Statistical Methods in Video Processing. Prague, may.
  2. Suppression du bruit de pompage des vidéos. F. Pitié , R. Dahyot and A. C. Kokaram (2003) In Proceedings 19eme Colloque sur le Traitement du Signal. Paris, September.
  3. Removing Flicker from old movies. F. Pitié (2002) Master's thesis, University of Nice-Sophia Antipolis.
April 04, 2007 by 134.226.86.54 -
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(:flv-player Attach:flicker_paula.web_360x288.flv width=400 height=300 :)

Figure 2: Video. Results on a colour sequence from a 8mm movie.
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(:flv-player Attach:Research.RoryOMore/toto.flv width=500 height=400 :)

Figure: Video. On the left the original shot. On the right the deflickered shot.
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Figure 3: Video. Results on a colour sequence from a 8mm movie.
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(:flv-player Attach:flicker_paula.web_360x288.flv width=400 height=300 :)

Figure 2: Video. Results on a colour sequence from a 8mm movie.
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Figure 3: Video. Results on a colour sequence from a 8mm movie.
March 27, 2007 by 193.189.66.74 -
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Figure 3: Video. Results on a colour sequence from a 8mm movie.
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(:flv-player Attach:Research.RoryOMore/rory08.deflickered.web_360x288.flv width=500 height=400 :)

Figure: Video. On the left the original shot. On the right the deflickered shot.
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(:flv-player Attach:flicker_paula.web_360x288.flv width=400 height=300 :)

Figure 2: Video. Results on a colour sequence from a 8mm movie.

Figure 3: Video. Results on a colour sequence from a 8mm movie.
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March 26, 2007 by 134.226.86.54 -
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(:flv-player Attach:Research.RoryOMore/rory08.deflickered.web_360x288.flv width=500 height=400 :)

Figure: Video. On the left the original shot. On the right the deflickered shot.
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Figure 3: Video. Results on a colour sequence from a 8mm movie.
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(:flv-player Attach:flicker_paula.web_360x288.flv width=400 height=300 :)

Figure 2: Video. Results on a colour sequence from a 8mm movie.

Figure 3: Video. Results on a colour sequence from a 8mm movie.
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March 25, 2007 by 134.226.86.54 -
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Figure 2: Video. Results on a colour sequence from a 8mm movie.
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Figure 3: Video. Results on a colour sequence from a 8mm movie.
March 25, 2007 by 134.226.86.54 -
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(:flv-player Attach:flicker_paula.web_360x288.flv :)

Figure 2: Video. Results on a color sequence from a 8mm movie.
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(:flv-player Attach:flicker_paula.web_360x288.flv width=500 height=400 :)

Figure 2: Video. Results on a colour sequence from a 8mm movie.
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(:flv-player Attach:flicker_paula.web_360x288.flv :)

Figure 2: Video. Results on a color sequence from a 8mm movie.
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(:flv-player Attach:flicker_paula.web_360x288.flv width=500 height=400 :)

Figure 2: Video. Results on a colour sequence from a 8mm movie.
March 25, 2007 by 134.226.86.54 -
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(:flv-player Attach:flicker_paula.web_360x288.flv :)

Figure 2: Video. Results on a color sequence from a 8mm movie.
March 24, 2007 by 89.100.131.250 -
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  1. Statistical Signal Processing Techniquesfor Visual Post-Production. F. Pitié (2006) PhD thesis, University of Dublin, Trinity College.
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  1. Statistical Signal Processing Techniques for Visual Post-Production. F. Pitié (2006) PhD thesis, University of Dublin, Trinity College.
March 23, 2007 by 134.226.86.54 -
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Figure: Video. Results on a color sequence from a 8mm movie.
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Figure 2: Video. Results on a color sequence from a 8mm movie.
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The success of current techniques for dealing with this is limited by the non-linearity of severe distortion, the presence of motion and missing data (yielding outliers in the estimation process) and the lack of fast implementations in reconfigurable systems. We proposed in [1,2,3] novel algorithms for stabilizing brightness fluctuations.

We proposed as well a unique implementation based on the novel use of general purpose PC graphics hardware. The overall system presented in our latest works is able to deal with much more severe distortion than previously was the case, and in addition can operate at real time on standart PC with broadcast standard definition images.

to:

The success of current techniques for dealing with this is limited by the non-linearity of severe distortion, the presence of motion and missing data (yielding outliers in the estimation process) and the lack of fast implementations in reconfigurable systems. We proposed novel algorithms for stabilizing brightness fluctuations.

We proposed as well a unique implementation based on the novel use of general purpose PC graphics hardware. The overall system presented in our latest works is able to deal with much more severe distortion than previously was the case, and in addition can operate at real time on standard PC with broadcast standard definition images.

March 23, 2007 by 134.226.86.54 -
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Suppression du bruit de pompage des vidéos. F. Pitié , R. Dahyot and A. C. Kokaram (2003) In Proceedings 19eme Colloque sur le Traitement du Signal. Paris, September.

to:
  1. Suppression du bruit de pompage des vidéos. F. Pitié , R. Dahyot and A. C. Kokaram (2003) In Proceedings 19eme Colloque sur le Traitement du Signal. Paris, September.
March 23, 2007 by 134.226.86.54 -
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  1. Removing Flicker from old movies. F. Pitié (2002) Master's thesis, University of Nice-Sophia Antipolis.

Suppression du bruit de pompage des vidéos. F. Pitié , R. Dahyot and A. C. Kokaram (2003) In Proceedings 19eme Colloque sur le Traitement du Signal. Paris, September.

  1. A New Robust Technique for Stabilizing Brightness Fluctuations. F. Pitié , R. Dahyot , F. Kelly and A. C. Kokaram (2004) In 2nd Workshop on Statistical Methods in Video Processing. Prague, may.
  2. Localised deflicker of Moving Images. F. Pitié , B. Kent , B. Collis and A. Kokaram (2006) In IEE European Conference on Visual Media Production (CVMP'06). London, December.
  3. Statistical Signal Processing Techniquesfor Visual Post-Production. F. Pitié (2006) PhD thesis, University of Dublin, Trinity College.
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\cite{fpitie05c,fpitie05b}\cite{fpitie05b}\cite{fpitie05a,fpitie05c,fpitie05c,fpitie05c}

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\makebibliography{}

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\cite{fpitie05c,fpitie05b} \cite{fpitie05b}\cite{fpitie05a,fpitie05c,fpitie05c,fpitie05c}

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\cite{fpitie05c,fpitie05b}\cite{fpitie05b}\cite{fpitie05a,fpitie05c,fpitie05c,fpitie05c}

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\cite{fpitie05c,fpitie05b} \cite{fpitie05b}\cite{fpitie05a,fpitie05c,fpitie05c,fpitie05c}

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[\cite{fpitie05c},\cite{fpitie05b},\cite{fpitie05b},,\cite{fpitie05a},,\cite{fpitie05c}]

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[\cite{fpitie05c},\cite{fpitie05b},\cite{fpitie05b},\cite{fpitie05a},\cite{fpitie05c}]

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[\cite{fpitie05c},\cite{fpitie05b},\cite{fpitie05b},,\cite{fpitie05a},,\cite{fpitie05c}]

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\cite{fpitie05c}\cite{fpitie05b}

The success of current techniques for dealing with this is limited by the non-linearity of severe distortion, the presence of motion and missing data (yielding outliers in the estimation process) and the lack of fast implementations in reconfigurable systems. We proposed in {[Publications.Bibtex2005,fpitie05c]} [1,2,3] novel algorithms for stabilizing brightness fluctuations.

to:

\cite{fpitie05c} \cite{fpitie05b}

The success of current techniques for dealing with this is limited by the non-linearity of severe distortion, the presence of motion and missing data (yielding outliers in the estimation process) and the lack of fast implementations in reconfigurable systems. We proposed in [1,2,3] novel algorithms for stabilizing brightness fluctuations.

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\bibtexsummary[Publications.Bibtex2005,fpitie05c]

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\cite{fpitie05c}\cite{fpitie05b}

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<ul> <li>[1] <strong><a href="http://www.mee.tcd.ie/~sigmedia/publications/publis/smvp2004_fpitie/fpitie_SMVP04.pdf">A New Robust Technique for Stabilizing Brightness Fluctuations in Image Sequences</a></strong>, F. Pitié, R. Dahyot, F. Kelly and A. Kokaram - 2nd Workshop on Statistical Methods in Video Processing In conjunction with ECCV 2004 Prague, Czech Republic, May 16, 2004. (<a href="http://www.mee.tcd.ie/~sigmedia/publications/publis/smvp2004_fpitie/index.php">demo</a>)</li>

<li>[2] <strong><a href="http://www.mee.tcd.ie/~sigmedia/publications/publis/Gretsi03/pitie_gretsi03.pdf">Suppression du bruit de pompage dans les vidéos</a></strong>, F. Pitié, R. Dahyot and A. Kokaram, GRETSI conference on signal and image processing, September 2003, Paris, France.</li> <li>[3] <strong><a href="http://www.mee.tcd.ie/~sigmedia/publications/publis/spie2003/vcip2003_kokaram_pitie.pdf" >Simultaneous Luminance and Position Stabilization for Film and Video</a></strong>, Anil C. Kokaram, Rozenn Dahyot, Francois Pitié, Hugh Denman, in Visual Communications and Image Processing, San Jose, California USA, Jan 2003.</li> </ul>

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\makebibliography{}

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 bibtexsummary[Publications.Bibtex2005,fpitie05c]
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\bibtexsummary[Publications.Bibtex2005,fpitie05c]

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bibtexsummary[Publications.Bibtex2005,fpitie05c]

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 bibtexsummary[Publications.Bibtex2005,fpitie05c]
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bibtexsummary[Publications.Bibtex2005,fpitie05c]

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  bibtexsummary[Publications.Bibtex2005,fpitie05c]
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The success of current techniques for dealing with this is limited by the non-linearity of severe distortion, the presence of motion and missing data (yielding outliers in the estimation process) and the lack of fast implementations in reconfigurable systems. We proposed in BibCite(Publications.Bibtex2005,fpitie05c) [1,2,3] novel algorithms for stabilizing brightness fluctuations.

to:

The success of current techniques for dealing with this is limited by the non-linearity of severe distortion, the presence of motion and missing data (yielding outliers in the estimation process) and the lack of fast implementations in reconfigurable systems. We proposed in {[Publications.Bibtex2005,fpitie05c]} [1,2,3] novel algorithms for stabilizing brightness fluctuations.

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The success of current techniques for dealing with this is limited by the non-linearity of severe distortion, the presence of motion and missing data (yielding outliers in the estimation process) and the lack of fast implementations in reconfigurable systems. We proposed in [1,2,3] novel algorithms for stabilizing brightness fluctuations.

to:

The success of current techniques for dealing with this is limited by the non-linearity of severe distortion, the presence of motion and missing data (yielding outliers in the estimation process) and the lack of fast implementations in reconfigurable systems. We proposed in BibCite(Publications.Bibtex2005,fpitie05c) [1,2,3] novel algorithms for stabilizing brightness fluctuations.

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<object data="http://www.mee.tcd.ie/~sigmedia//matos/video_player.swf?loadfile=http://www.mee.tcd.ie/~sigmedia/research/restoration/flicker/../ifc/rory08.deflickered.web_360x288.swf&preview=http://www.mee.tcd.ie/~sigmedia/research/restoration/flicker/../ifc/rory08.deflickered.web_360x288.jpgapplication/x-shockwave-flash" width="320" height="256"> <a href="../ifc/rory08.deflickered.web_360x288.avi"><img src="../ifc/rory08.deflickered.web_360x288.jpg" alt="../ifc/rory08.deflickered.web_360x288.avi" width="320"/></a> </object> <br class="break"/> <strong>Videos:</strong>On the left the original shot. On the right the deflickered shot. (from <a href="../ifc/index.php">Rory O'More</a>, 1911) </center> </div>

<div class="figure">

<center> <object data="http://www.mee.tcd.ie/~sigmedia//matos/video_player.swf?loadfile=http://www.mee.tcd.ie/~sigmedia/research/restoration/flicker/flicker_paula.web_360x288.swf&preview=http://www.mee.tcd.ie/~sigmedia/research/restoration/flicker/flicker_paula.web_360x288.jpgapplication/x-shockwave-flash" width="350" height="280"> <a href="flicker_paula.web_360x288.avi"><img src="flicker_paula.web_360x288.jpg" alt="flicker_paula.web_360x288.avi" width="350"/></a> </object>

<br class="break"/> <strong>Videos:</strong> Color sequence from a 8mm movie. </center> </div>

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(:flv-player Attach:rory08.deflickered.web_360x288.flv :)

Figure: Video. On the left the original shot. On the right the deflickered shot.

(:flv-player Attach:flicker_paula.web_360x288.flv :)

Figure: Video. Results on a color sequence from a 8mm movie.
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<div class="figure"> <center> <object data="http://www.mee.tcd.ie/~sigmedia//matos/video_player.swf?loadfile=http://www.mee.tcd.ie/~sigmedia/research/restoration/flicker/../ifc/rory08.deshaken.web_360x288.swf&preview=http://www.mee.tcd.ie/~sigmedia/research/restoration/flicker/../ifc/rory08.deshaken.web_360x288.jpgapplication/x-shockwave-flash" width="320" height="256"> <a href="../ifc/rory08.deshaken.web_360x288.avi"><img src="../ifc/rory08.deshaken.web_360x288.jpg" alt="../ifc/rory08.deshaken.web_360x288.avi" width="320"/></a> </object>

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\lettrine{T}emporal random variation of luminance in images, can manifest in film and video due to a wide variety of sources. Typical in archived films, it also affects scenes recorded simultaneously with different cameras (e.g. for film special effect), and scenes affected by illumination problems. Many applications in Computer Vision and Image Processing that try to match images (e.g. for motion estimation, stereo vision, etc.) have to cope with this problem.

to:

Temporal random variation of luminance in images, can manifest in film and video due to a wide variety of sources. Typical in archived films, it also affects scenes recorded simultaneously with different cameras (e.g. for film special effect), and scenes affected by illumination problems. Many applications in Computer Vision and Image Processing that try to match images (e.g. for motion estimation, stereo vision, etc.) have to cope with this problem.

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Temporal random variation of luminance in images, can manifest in film and video due to a wide variety of sources. Typical in archived films, it also affects scenes recorded simultaneously with different cameras (e.g. for film special effect), and scenes affected by illumination problems. Many applications in Computer Vision and Image Processing that try to match images (e.g. for motion estimation, stereo vision, etc.) have to cope with this problem.

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\lettrine{T}emporal random variation of luminance in images, can manifest in film and video due to a wide variety of sources. Typical in archived films, it also affects scenes recorded simultaneously with different cameras (e.g. for film special effect), and scenes affected by illumination problems. Many applications in Computer Vision and Image Processing that try to match images (e.g. for motion estimation, stereo vision, etc.) have to cope with this problem.

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<h2>Bibliography</h2>

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Bibliography

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author: François Pitié
keywords: Flicker Removal, Deflicker, Brightness Stabilisation, Digital Movie Restoration

Temporal random variation of luminance in images, can manifest in film and video due to a wide variety of sources. Typical in archived films, it also affects scenes recorded simultaneously with different cameras (e.g. for film special effect), and scenes affected by illumination problems. Many applications in Computer Vision and Image Processing that try to match images (e.g. for motion estimation, stereo vision, etc.) have to cope with this problem.

The success of current techniques for dealing with this is limited by the non-linearity of severe distortion, the presence of motion and missing data (yielding outliers in the estimation process) and the lack of fast implementations in reconfigurable systems. We proposed in [1,2,3] novel algorithms for stabilizing brightness fluctuations.

We proposed as well a unique implementation based on the novel use of general purpose PC graphics hardware. The overall system presented in our latest works is able to deal with much more severe distortion than previously was the case, and in addition can operate at real time on standart PC with broadcast standard definition images.

<div class="figure"> <center> <object data="http://www.mee.tcd.ie/~sigmedia//matos/video_player.swf?loadfile=http://www.mee.tcd.ie/~sigmedia/research/restoration/flicker/../ifc/rory08.deshaken.web_360x288.swf&preview=http://www.mee.tcd.ie/~sigmedia/research/restoration/flicker/../ifc/rory08.deshaken.web_360x288.jpgapplication/x-shockwave-flash" width="320" height="256"> <a href="../ifc/rory08.deshaken.web_360x288.avi"><img src="../ifc/rory08.deshaken.web_360x288.jpg" alt="../ifc/rory08.deshaken.web_360x288.avi" width="320"/></a> </object>

<object data="http://www.mee.tcd.ie/~sigmedia//matos/video_player.swf?loadfile=http://www.mee.tcd.ie/~sigmedia/research/restoration/flicker/../ifc/rory08.deflickered.web_360x288.swf&preview=http://www.mee.tcd.ie/~sigmedia/research/restoration/flicker/../ifc/rory08.deflickered.web_360x288.jpgapplication/x-shockwave-flash" width="320" height="256"> <a href="../ifc/rory08.deflickered.web_360x288.avi"><img src="../ifc/rory08.deflickered.web_360x288.jpg" alt="../ifc/rory08.deflickered.web_360x288.avi" width="320"/></a> </object> <br class="break"/> <strong>Videos:</strong>On the left the original shot. On the right the deflickered shot. (from <a href="../ifc/index.php">Rory O'More</a>, 1911) </center> </div>

<div class="figure">

<center> <object data="http://www.mee.tcd.ie/~sigmedia//matos/video_player.swf?loadfile=http://www.mee.tcd.ie/~sigmedia/research/restoration/flicker/flicker_paula.web_360x288.swf&preview=http://www.mee.tcd.ie/~sigmedia/research/restoration/flicker/flicker_paula.web_360x288.jpgapplication/x-shockwave-flash" width="350" height="280"> <a href="flicker_paula.web_360x288.avi"><img src="flicker_paula.web_360x288.jpg" alt="flicker_paula.web_360x288.avi" width="350"/></a> </object>

<br class="break"/> <strong>Videos:</strong> Color sequence from a 8mm movie. </center> </div>

<h2>Bibliography</h2> <ul> <li>[1] <strong><a href="http://www.mee.tcd.ie/~sigmedia/publications/publis/smvp2004_fpitie/fpitie_SMVP04.pdf">A New Robust Technique for Stabilizing Brightness Fluctuations in Image Sequences</a></strong>, F. Pitié, R. Dahyot, F. Kelly and A. Kokaram - 2nd Workshop on Statistical Methods in Video Processing In conjunction with ECCV 2004 Prague, Czech Republic, May 16, 2004. (<a href="http://www.mee.tcd.ie/~sigmedia/publications/publis/smvp2004_fpitie/index.php">demo</a>)</li>

<li>[2] <strong><a href="http://www.mee.tcd.ie/~sigmedia/publications/publis/Gretsi03/pitie_gretsi03.pdf">Suppression du bruit de pompage dans les vidéos</a></strong>, F. Pitié, R. Dahyot and A. Kokaram, GRETSI conference on signal and image processing, September 2003, Paris, France.</li> <li>[3] <strong><a href="http://www.mee.tcd.ie/~sigmedia/publications/publis/spie2003/vcip2003_kokaram_pitie.pdf" >Simultaneous Luminance and Position Stabilization for Film and Video</a></strong>, Anil C. Kokaram, Rozenn Dahyot, Francois Pitié, Hugh Denman, in Visual Communications and Image Processing, San Jose, California USA, Jan 2003.</li> </ul>

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